About Journal

Diyala Journal: Journal of scientific research dealing with the Court of humanitarian and scientific texts achieved sobering investigation numbered and bear an internationally accredited (ISSN1998-104X) and accepted for publication on the research according to the following rules: 1 publishes original research and sober not previously published in other journals, and is subject to the calendar every search by the experts according to their specialties minute. 2 offers Search two copies on paper of the type (A4) printed on the calculator and spaces to double between the lines with the left (2.5 cm) from all points of the paper and preferred to use the character (Simplified Arabic) style (16) to search the whole, the research the main and branch Vttaba line bold. 3 research resulted as follows: Abstract in Arabic, Introduction, chapters research, results and discussion, conclusions, Conclusion, Abstract in English, the margins (if any), and sources. 4 does not exceed the number of pages (20) page, including tables, forms and images in the case beyond that deducted the amount of $ (5,000) five thousand dinars for every two pages. Be placed 5 charts or tables in the text or images with serial numbered consecutively with the development of their own titles, and is drawn charts and black Chinese ink on transparent paper (tracing paper) As for the photographs Vttaba on paper of a kind brilliant. 6 are the sources mentioned in the text with numbers placed in brackets, and set the margins and in the end of the research sources on a separate sheet in the order they are received in the search. 7 take into account the assets of the magazine sober scientific inquiry in the case of published texts achieved on the researcher to submit a photocopy of the first and last page in the manuscript with models of some pages and not the text investigator has published or sent for publication in other journals. 8 found under the title of research history of acceptance for publication of scientific and administrative purposes. 9 No research are to their owners whether they were accepted for publication or not accepted for publication. 10 send the research with all correspondence and inquiries regarding the magazine to the following address: Secretary of the board of Liberation College of Education for Human Sciences University of Diyala Diyala, Iraq, the old road to Baghdad e-b 216 Or email (journal@coehuman.uodiyala.edu.iq) http://www.humanmag.uodiyala.edu.iq This journal is specialized in humanities It was established in accordance with the needs of civilized community to achieve its aims in writing , research and Scientific documentation. It relies on teaching staffs and academics to spread innovative thinking for the benefit of specialists and scholars. It is mention worthy that the journal was established in 1997 and has published(62) issues so far.

Current Issue

The Transformative elements in Al – Moqtadhab book of Al – Mobarrid

NaseifJasim Mohammed; Basha; er Ali Abid Abbas

Journal of Research Diyala humanity, In Press

Studying Arabic language using the language of modernity means a social and scientific study that works on shedding light on the common scientific principles between the modern and traditional linguistics through description, analysis, and interpretation. A study like this may result in creating a linguistic plant that grows to give theoretical and applied linguistic fruits.
This research is entitled (The Transformative elements in Al-Moqtadhab book of Al-Mobarrid) aims at clarifying the most important common transformation elements between Arabic grammar and the modern linguistic theory.
The transformation elements are represented by (Rank -presentation and the delay, increase, and deletion). This study helps in showing the most important similarities between the linguistic method and Al-Moqtadhab book by depending on modern and traditional Arab Grammar resources in addition to the modest scientific linguistic results that has enriched the research.
Theses, dissertations and researches of the same concern have been taken into consideration in this research.
The research shows the effect of linguistic thinking in building new horizons of awareness concerning linguistic structures. It also shows the features of transformational method in the case of imposing text to interpretation because it contains two indications: meaning indication, that is a morale, mental one and a verbal surface indication from the point that language is a group of relations among vocalizations on one hand and the generative and transformational in the light of surface structure and deep structure on the other hand.

Jurisprudential views Of Imam Rajaa bin HaywahThe (d. 112 AH)

EMAD AMOURY GALIL AL ZAHEDY

Journal of Research Diyala humanity, In Press

By the mercy of God in this nation that created her men Avmama , carrying the banner of the greatest on earth religion , the religion of Islam , which is considered one of the greatest shariah law and completed . Among those flagsthe Taabi'i Imam ( Rajaa Ben Haywah ) . I chose his views jurisprudence to be the subject of my research Vosmith : ( doctrine forward Raja Ben Haywah ); and that he has this forward Galilee of science, and jurisprudence , and prestige ; and also because he did not single out a study of scientific jurisprudence so far as I know .
The systematic search is as follows : I first started Imam definition Rjaa Ben Haywah , did not elaborate much to mention his life; to the small research, because the subject of my research deals with his doctrinal views . Then addressed the doctrine , start drafting issue formulation doctrinal simplified , then mention his opinion, and the opinion of the approval of the Companions, and followers, and owners of schools of Islamic jurisprudence , and then I remember after that the evidence quoted , and then mention the opinion of offending him, and their evidence , and discuss the evidence of the two teams, and most likely seems to me.
The divisive research : it made him an introduction , smoothing, and five issues , and a conclusion. Shown in the foreground the importance of the subject , and reason optional him , and systematic it, and divisive him . Then boot made in the life of Imam Rjaa Ben Haywah . Then addressed five issues borne forward. Then summarized in the Conclusion of the most
important findings through research , namely:

Ahkam Al-shahada W Alatazkyia Massage For Al-Allam'aaQasimbnQatlubga (879h – 1474m)

MohammedAtshanElewi

Journal of Research Diyala humanity, In Press

I tried in this study in its three sections (which includes two chapter, the first chapter included a definition of the author and his era, his political, social and scientific life as well as name and surname, whereas the second chapter describes the dependent version and my method in the investigation and then section) to stand on the side of the aspects of Islamic jurisprudence which is the side of the certificate, testimonial and its rulings, which is needed by everyone in his daily life.
And I tried in the academic side to show his period and his political and social, scientific and personal condition, where his name and his surname and his birth and upbringing, also the description of the dependent version shown in the investigation.
And I tried to show the position of some Jurists about the rule of sponsorship and the testimony in comparative matters, where I showed the viewpoints and evidence of jurists, and it can be concluded that :
- The jurisprudential schools have increased to the legislative side great service including the Islamic legacy of valuable works with a lot of jurisprudential provisions and this shows flexibility and validity of this law in every time and place.
- The investigative study from important study which the efforts must go to it because it shows us a lot of judgments and the position of jurists from it, as well as it contributes in keeping the Islamic identity and the most prominent landmarks because the age that it lives in live dormant intellectual when his Followers trying to highlight features of their heritage and establish the features and their presence through his heritage.

Moderation in the legal rulings from the fundamentalist viewpoint

Abbas Ali Hameed

Journal of Research Diyala humanity, In Press

First research: what language of moderation and idiomatically.

The first requirement: moderation language and idiomatically.
The second requirement: intermediate language and idiomatically.

The second research: foundations and manifestations of moderation in the Islamic Sharia.

The first requirement: consistency and flexibility in the provisions.
The second requirement: a virtue of necessity.
Third requirement: Unlearning Intolerance idiosyncratic.
Third research: Foundations and manifestations of moderation in the Islamic Sharia.

The first requirement : taking into account the jurisprudence of the budget the pros and cons.

The second requirement: moderation in the advisory opinion.
Third requirement: Do not is a criminal offending in matters branches.
Conclusion: summarize the findings of the researcher.

policy Judge While Resembling in Sturgeon penalty of Judgments policy The caliphs Research -model-

hnstruct-Ali kasmzedin

Journal of Research Diyala humanity, In Press

This research a study on Islamic politics linguistically and religiously, and also focuses on the statement of the concept and the work of caliphs (may Allah be pleased with them) to understand the legitimate politics in approval with the Quran and sunnah in all the judgments which they made, and who have lived with the prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and understood the religious texts, their intention, and how they can be realized. Some models have been mentioned in this paper. It was reported in this paper some models of judgments. And is to interest of this provision, the referee who came from them is guidance and a sunnah and duty to follow the example of their own. This research has shown the effort and understanding of Rashid caliphs (may Allah be pleased with them) and their eagerness to apply justice efforts blessed in these Conditions that were established on the interest of the nation.
The Caliphs (may Allah be pleased with them) were the blessed lead that carried the burden of governance and their the advocacy and justice, and who have made the dear cheap for the sake of God, they are the people of sacrifice and a role model for every governor holds the truth of justice, and the Highness the goal, it is obligatory for the nation to love them and follow them the things they did to support the religion and love for His Messenger(peace be upon him).

Mohammed bin Qais and his explanatory

Bilal J. Mohammed

Journal of Research Diyala humanity, In Press

Allaah sent His Messenger Muhammad (peace be upon him), while the apostles to all people harbinger and herald and calling to Allah by His permission and a lamp illuminating, supported by some miracle Khaleda addressed minds and alerted the senses toward reflect on all that aware of up to that of the Mahsusat maker wise glorify all none of them either off or an article, and this miracle is the Qur'an, which came mouthpiece of hostel including marking the beginning of a new era in which the light that dispels the darkness, and the Justice who saves people from injustice of other religions to the justice of Islam, and pulls people out of the worship of people to worship the Lord of mankind, The synonymous Quran Sunnah of the Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him) in his words and deeds and approval, through which that whole and devoted public, which at capacity and that came provisions not found in the Koran but also not exposed every verse which remained many of these verses as evidenced by the meaning of the language of the Arabs The Hjath that descended in their own language.
It is this which we began companions dependents and later strive to explain everything in the Qur'an and Sunnah, which did not appear in interpreted text boycotted a verse or talk, and this was the explanation by the novel and hear who is like him or it Ksma followers of the Companions or others, or interpretation verses to carry these words of the meanings in the language of the Arabs.
And Mohammed bin Qais (Allah's mercy) is dependent who took from his companions and followers (God bless them), also taken from him many followers and followers followers, and said many of the scholars that he was a high status in the science of interpretation and modern, as cited many commentators his words They cited in the course their interpretation of the verses, led by Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, so collected his words in the Quranic verses that have a different opinion in the interpretation Vondzt this research which assessed the two sections as well as the conclusion and references, but Alambgesan was the first of his life, and the other was to show his statements that incorporated with verses interpreted.

Speech Organs Between Speech and Other Functions

Mohammed Basheer Hasan

Journal of Research Diyala humanity, In Press

The paper aims at tracing some of the views that tackled the study of human speech organs and which assert that speech in these organs is a subsidiary function, for their main function is to keep human life (biological function), and that these organs becamearticulate prone to mere coincidence as speech in them existed in a late phase of human life. They also see that these organs were not articulate in origin, but they came to be so due to the evolution factors that influenced them, and because of human intelligence and societal necessity.
The paper compromises three sections; section the first entitled “Advocates of the Function of Speech Organs as Subsidiary” sheds light on the most prominent researchers adopting this notion.
The second section is “The Effect of Darwin’s Theory in the View Towards Speech Organs”. It concentrates on a synopsis of this theory including the most famous Darwinian quotations through which one is able to originate phoneticians’ views that are influenced by this theory.
While section three which is “Refuters of the Speech Organs Function as Secondary,” focuses on the most prominent Arab researchers who rejected such views, through some of the texts that exemplify this refutation. Then it is to strengthen the rejecters’ status through some of what was written in the publications of some western researchers who dealt with human speech organs as some of these texts show the unreliability of these hypotheses.

Semantic development in grammatical structures In the decisions of the Arabic Language Academy in Cairo

Mohammed Saleh Yassin al-Jubouri

Journal of Research Diyala humanity, In Press

This research is based on Semantic development in grammatical structuresIn the decisions of the Arabic Language Academy in Cairo. It included the study of evolution when semantic modern linguists and manifestations, including the: Semantic allocation, and circular and decadence, progress and change in the area of significance, then between significance at Cairo's compound and how attention Almjmaaon to metaphorical connotations? The position statement Almagamat language of the word ((significance)) and their meanings and their derivatives; then moved later to study the evolution of semantic grammatical structures in the decisions of the complex, which was based on what he brought members of the research and studies and notes provided to the compound through the Committee on assets, as we now study: Log thousand lam on ((all)) and ((some)), then we moved to the subject ((modulated)) which we began definition of linguistic and terminological and conditions, and position statement Members him, and we moved then to shift semantic word ((where)) and Multi ((I do preference)) and studied the decision compound which resulted in the issuance set of conditions, and then moved later to the subject ((epithet source)) and we talked after the exit style question to semantics variety through metaphor, and studied then uses methods grammatical modern expressions that monitored the compound through the development of civilization with the Arabic language, including:
Significance of the word ((as long as)) trendy, and significant new character ((Ba)), and the advent of ((with)) to denote the meaning of ((the same)) and ((eye)), and the significance of ((not)) updated composite exiled, and significance ((so)) trendy.





Through the above we have adopted in this study on the decisions of the compound in its various, minutes of its meetings, and research members and their memoirs, and Magamat complex linguistic, and wrote ancient and modern, and we adopted the citizen citation on the Koran, proverbs and poems Arabs ..
After we ended our study to the subject of the most important results that we have reached.

Orientalisme : problematic for concept

Khalil Ibrahim al-Qaisi; haib; Saad al-AdwanO

Journal of Research Diyala humanity, In Press

Because of orientalism prestige in Arabic language studies and literary , Has influenced the study of this concept under the title
(orientalism : problematic for concept) .
As you in this research of the concept of orientalism at the orientalists and the Arabs , where I can not Find a difference in their perception of orientalism , but I Found a great similanty between the two , The research Found that orientalism is suffering From problematic geography. Which did not helping him in to give him a clear picture of the concept .
The research also Found that the overall concept has not received a great deal of pre-orientalists themselves and because of its bad image in the souls and hearts of others , trying to keep away From him with come up with alternative concepts and terminology of him like ( middle Eastern . studies and studies oriental ) and other terms that the For concept old only label . And I Finished talking about orientalism through male terms Alastarab and puzziement in orientalist texts and the Arabs them study Found the most important Findings search .

Assessing the National Examinations Questions of the History module in Secondary Schools According to Bloom's Taxonomy of Knowledge Levels

Abdulrazaq A. Zydan; Hassan. H. Al-Bawai

Journal of Research Diyala humanity, In Press

The assessment is considered a real and direct sign to identify the extent of achieving the goals of educational process. As examination is one of means to assess the student and an integrated part of the teaching process. Therefore the researchers conducted this study to assess the national examination questions of the history module in secondary school according to Bloom’s taxonomy of knowledge levels.
The scope of this paper deals with following points:-
1. The national examination questions of the modern history and contemporary history of Arab world in sixth stage for the
last ten years
2.The six Bloom’s levels of knowledge (Remembering, comprehension, application, analyzing, structuring and assessment).
The procedures of this paper
The sample of this paper consists of the national examination questions in all Iraq’s provinces with exception of Kurdistan region. The sample of this paper is the national questions from 2001-2002 until 2010 -2010 of the first attempt and the total number of questions was (106) question.
The researcher used the statistic means 1- repetition -2- percentages.
The researcher found the following outcomes:-
1- The extent of including the national questions of the following modules (modern history, contemporary history of the Arab world for the sixth stage on knowledge levels of Bloom’s taxonomy in every year of paper’s sample.
2- The extent of including the national questions for the history module on each level of Bloom’s taxonomy (remembering, comprehension, application, analyzing, structuring and assessment of the last ten years.
In the light of paper’s results , the researcher recommends on the following
1- It is important to develop the national questions to an extent that insure the measurement in all the knowledge levels (Remembering , comprehension, application , analyzing, structuring, and assessment.
The researcher suggests the following points:
1- Conducting an identical study to this study , but for other stages.
2- Assessing the final courses and monthly questions which are prepared by teachers.

Manufactures and Handicrafts and Professions In Mamluk's Egypt (648-923A.h1250-1517A.M)

Sayaf abd Husain

Journal of Research Diyala humanity, In Press

The View of Islam towards jobs and professions is cIear cut , for working is of the essentiaI and PrincipaI things that are encouraged by Islam . This notion is evident in certain specific Quranic Verses invoking peopIe to work and seek their Iiving . The same view can be noticed in the Prophetic tradition and the sayings of the Prophets caIiphs and schoIars .Therefore jobs and professions become of a non – disputed social and economic significance through the Various Islamic cities and periods such as Egypt in both the MamIuk and Bourjia nations (648-923AH/1250-1517AD) and this is to be the core of this present study. The professions in Egypt varied duriny that period of time , some are reIated to Iife necessities , Iike food and drink and what foIIows in importance as professions of cIoth_making and dressing to what are deaIing with accessories and physicaIcompIexion professions as shaving or the Iike , such professions witnessed development and improvement in the appearance of specialization and proficiency competing thus othe cities and civilizations . Certain other professions flourished greatly like some professions which are of high contact to daily life as professions concerned with water ,like water-bearers and public bathrooms owners , and some others dealing with accessories that are signifying luxury and stylish life like singing, music and the various different types of games .

The effectivenessof the use of mind maps strategy in the collection of the fifth grade students in the literary Article history

Abdul Razak Abdullah Zidan Anbuge; Marwa Yassin Ahmed Al-Dulaimi

Journal of Research Diyala humanity, In Press

يهدف البحث الحالي إلى معرفة فاعلية استعمال إستراتيجية الخرائط الذهنية في تحصيل طالبات الصف الخامس الأدبي في مادة التاريخ, ولتحقيق هدف البحث أجريت تجربة استغرقت الفصل الدراسي الأول من العام الدراسي 2012-2013 , إذ اختارت الباحثة إعدادية الزهراء للبنات قصديا لتطبيق التجربة وحددت عينة البحث (75) طالبة بواقع (37) طالبة للمجموعة التجريبية , و(38) طالبة للمجموعة الضابطة , وقد كوفئت المجموعتان في متغيرات (الذكاء, العمر الزمني, التحصيل الدراسي للوالدين, درجات العام السابق لمادة التاريخ), واعتمدت الباحثة التصميم التجريبي ذو الضبط الجزئي ذا الاختبار ألبعدي لمجموعتي البحث, وبعد الانتهاء من التجربة حللت النتائج إحصائيا باستعمال الاختبار التائي T.test لعينتين مستقلتين , وأظهرت النتائج تفوق طالبات المجموعة التجريبية اللاتي درسن باستعمال إستراتيجية الخرائط الذهنية على طالبات المجموعة الضابطة في الاختبار ألتحصيلي.

The Landlocked Position and its Effect on State’s Power Case Study –Mali State

Abdul Al-Ameer Abbas Al-Hayali; Wisam Ali Keytan

Journal of Research Diyala humanity, In Press

This paper covers three themes, the first theme deals with geographic significance of the landlocked countries and their sufferance from psychological, economic, political and legal issues because of their remote geographic locations from seas and oceans. The issues of these countries are exacerbated; as their number reached 43 country and mostly located in Africa and then Europe, Asia and South America. The landlocked country becomes in unenviable situation, unless it ensures the right of navaltransit in the territorial waters and obtaining the facilities from the ports of coastal countries and transportation. That is to say landlocked country should look for warranties or it becomes politically isolated and consequently many disputes can be waged over the borders in order to secure free and constant passages to the sea. Such disputes, if happened, cannot be resolved only by regional cooperation between inner countries and coastal countries through conducting several agreements and cooperation between each other and at the end the landlocked countries can obtain the facilities to reach the sea. The second theme reaffirms international agreements and the rights of landlocked countries to access the sea as confirmed in Geneva Conference of 1958 to benefit from international seas and demarking the territorial water and assisting the inner countries to access the sea through the lands of coastal countries. However, there are some cases refer not to implement these obligations for many reasons resulted by political differences between the coastal and inner countries. For instance as happened in South Africa, where the international laws and agreements ensured the right of transit for the landlocked countries through the lands of surrounding countries. In this regard, 32 countries signed Barcelona Treaty in 1921, which supports the freedom of crossing through the concerned countries’ lands to facilitate transmitting the goods of neighbouring countries without imposing taxes or getting reasonable transit duty. Some countries did not sign this Treaty, but they held bilateral agreements with neighbouring countries to achieve the main goals. However, in some cases, these bilateral agreements failed in solving all issues of landlocked countries, therefore these countries resorted to international organizations as formerly known The International League to ensure making decisions which support their marine rights in seas and over the lands of transit countries. The third theme concerns the impact of landlocked countries’ position in geopolitical aspects of Mali. It focuses on Mali’s geographic position, which is considered one of most important factors to study the principles of Mali’s political geography, which deals with Mali’s continental, naval and astronomical position and the position of neighbouring countries. Despite astronomical position of Mali, this in basics of political geography is one of the major weaknesses to the political unity from many perspectives. Such geographic position deprives the concerned country from direct communication with any outer country except the countries which have mutual borders. Such case makes Mali draws heavily on neighbouring countries, particularity Mauritania and Senegal as they both overlook AtlanticOcean.

Tourism Industry Between the cost and Desert :Afield study of Dubai Experiment

mohammadtaha n.al-hayany

Journal of Research Diyala humanity, In Press

Emirates Shores in general and Dubai shores in particular have an important role in the past and present in attracting human beings as residents or tourists. This may be due to the historical value as a center of human activity that has developed now a days to constitute an attractive source to this Golf Emirate. This gives a situational importance to this city and makes it an attractive city for the developed and developing countries and has encouraged the geography scholars to compare it with the other Arabic and Iraqi cities. This paper is an example of geographical trend which contributes in developing the field and scholarly thought for students and discovering the tools of environment flourishing and its importance.
This study has investigated the following:
1-The extent of environment development of Dubai shore and the effect of pollution on it and the way of manipulating it via the study of two different area in Jumera 1 and Jumera
2-The social and environment awareness for the natural life and studying its zoological and plant differences and the role of society in maintaining it.
3-Studying the important role of the environmental factors and the sea shore in attracting tourists

Analysis pressure system for low and high rainy year in Iraq during trims 1970/1971- 1998/1999

Azhar S. Hadi

Journal of Research Diyala humanity, In Press

Rain in Iraq recognized annul fluctuation, So appear year humidity high rain and other dry, the reason about that variance frequency the depressions ,also effective the through and ridges in (500 Millibar).
The aim of study to know many of depressions frequency and to accompany from throughs and ridges in (500Millibar) during high rain year and high dry year . analysis of time series of (1970/1971-1998/1999) from its there are (1973/1974) it was rainiest ,while (1998/1999) it was driest. Study area consist nineteen station in Iraq.
For get conclusion depended embrace analyses approach ,analyses surface synoptic map and upper synoptic. In this search got many conclusion one of them, not all months in humidity year(1973/1974)are rainy, such as December and April its recording low rain from a average, the reason in that , the ridges in upper synoptic(500mil par) so doing to weak a depression. The tow conclusion, deferent isoyets between high rainy and low rainy year, in once year study area put between (50 to 1000) mil isoyets, while put between (zero to 400) mil in second year.

Topography of Tigris River and it Natural and Human Challenges

far; Ali TalabJa

Journal of Research Diyala humanity, In Press

The reason of emerging ancient Iraqi civilizations mainly due to the abundance of waters that Iraq gaining. It is the two immortals rivers (Euphrates and Tigris) a major role in the successiful life of Iraqi civilization, that any disruption in the role of these two rivers would be largely reflected and tremendous on all aspects of life in Iraq. So you should consider the problem of water is not based on the current stage and try to reach temporary solutions, but must work for the long term in an attempt to provide water and food security of the Iraqi society.
This study aims to identify the current irrigating reality and try to search waters’ problems in Iraq River Tigris according to three important dimensions, namely :-
The first dimension:- Topography of the Tigris River, and its limits to the topography along Tigris River between Baghdad and the kormat Ali , it is divided into the following stages :-
1- Tigris between Baghdad and Kut.
2- Tigris between Kut and Amarah.
3- Tigris between Amara and Basra at kormat Ali.
The second dimension:- natural constraints facing the Tigris River, namely: -
1- Sediment and suspended matter.
2- Twists and fjords.
3- Contrast watery discharge.
4- The growth of weeds in the Tigris River basin.
Third Dimension:- Industrial and constraints of Turkish dams built on Tigris River is the most prominent: - Cape mega-project on the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers and it most important projects are :
1- Dam Djokigera.
2- Batman Dam.
3- Filling Btman - Sullivan.
4- Draft Tigris - GazzalAzzi.
5- Draft dam Btman.
6- Project Carzan.
7- Turkey has a plan to set up integrated agricultural and hydroelectric projects in the upper Great Zab including:-
A- Upper Dam Zab. B- Solot dam.
B- C- Dam Jalderan. D- Dam Hakkari.
8- Urfa dam project.
9- Ilisu Dam Project (Aleso) on the Tigris River.
10- Draft AlisoJazrh on the Tigris River.

Global Climatic Changes

MuroogeHashimKamil Al-Salihi; KadhimAbd-Al-Wahab Hassan Al-Assadi

Journal of Research Diyala humanity, In Press

The current paper falls within the scope of climatic geography which aims at exploring global climate changes that are regarded as a result of civil developments particularly since the rise of the industrial revolution. The non rational consumption of natural resources andconstructional expansion at the expense of greenish fields had hazardous influences upon the atmospheric components by quickly increasing hot gasesconcentrations resulting thus in increasing global temperatures forming what is now known as global warming phenomenon, as well as other various changes in all climatic elements.
The paper concluded that global climatic changes resulted from natural and human factors. These factors interact together and work reciprocally. There are many anticipated effects and consequences prone to climate changes. These influences will be of global shape. Most noticeable among them are; increased temperatures, sea-level increase, desertification, ice melting, and negative effects on human health and on agriculture.

Role that secondary headmasters play in facing the crises in their schools in terms their administrative Tasks

Seeham Abdullah Hussein

Journal of Research Diyala humanity, In Press

This study aims to identify the role that secondary school headmasters play in facing the crises in their schools in terms of their administrative
Tasks. To achieve the goals of this study, the sample consists of (56) male and female headmasters. An analytic and descriptive approach is adopted in this study for matching the subject matter of this study and its aim .the researcher found that the secondary school headmasters play a considerable role in encountering the crisis in their schools by following modern methods in dealing with these crisis. One of the recommendations of this study is to establish a certain unit specialized in problem-management in Directorates of Education. This unit is to manage and solve problems which happen in schools and it provides solutions and suggestions to resolve any crisis or problem.

Asses ment of science teacher preparation in education colleges in diyala university in the llight of comprehensive quality standards From the point of view of teachers and students

ImanKhalaf Mehdi

Journal of Research Diyala humanity, In Press

our to days word pass atransition era to get to a new era characterized by variables unsurpassed quality resulted in some investigations facing the Arab nation such as globalization and alienation cosmic unipolar and economic blocs giant and the information revolution, communication and technology and this investigation and the accompanying developments imposed several investigations against rights in Iraq which may, Inoaa change and development of the educational system to keep pace with contemporary changes and challenges (Mohammed, 2003, p 12).
So must begin attention Baeidadalmadrs by focusing on designing a program to prepare the perpetrator is activated according to an ongoing process to ensure quality performance and effectiveness in the preparation of the teacher, no doubt that the process of continuous evaluation of the program to prepare teachers in colleges of education an important process to help correct errors and address weaknesses in program and enhance the strengths (AFM, 2000, p 25).
In order to achieve the aim of the research and researcher developed following Altsaullac
1- Mamdy availability of comprehensive quality standards in preparing science teachers in the Faculty of Education at the University of Diyala from the vantage point of fourth grade students in disciplines (chemistry, biology)
2- Mamdy availability of comprehensive quality standards in preparing science teachers in the Faculty of Education at the University of Diyala from the vantage point of faculty members in disciplines (chemistry, biology)
3- Mamdy availability of comprehensive quality standards in preparing science teachers in the Faculty of Education at the University of Diyala drew the attention of the members of the faculty and students
The current research is limited to: -
- All faculty members in the College of Education at the University of Diyala who teach students scientific disciplines (chemistry, biology) in the Faculty of Education at the University of Diyala.
- Phase IV students of scientific disciplines (chemistry, biology) in the Faculty of Education at the University of Diyala
- Second semester (2010 - 2011).
The researcher used the descriptive analytical method and the use of a questionnaire contains Ndjemuah of axles and paragraphs are (admission policy, the goals of the program and courses, the content of the decisions of the program, evaluating students, academic administration, finance, production of scientific and scientific events, community services).
The results said the lack of overall quality standards in the science teacher preparation program in the Faculty of Education of the University of Diyala and exited researcher with a set of recommendations and proposals.

Abdul-Hameed Khadhim & His Educational and Political Role In Iraq Until the Year 1958

Khaz; alDhahir; Isra

Journal of Research Diyala humanity, In Press

Abdul-Hameed Khadhim is considered one of the personalities that has its eminent role in the Ministry of knowledge owing to what characterized him as Minister of Knowledge of cultural and educational role in signing agreements of cultural exchange with Arabic & Foreign countries and bringing Foreign cadres to improve and diversify experiences of education and teaching For Iraqi cadres, looking after local and international conferences of education and teaching. He also paid special attention to develop teaching curriculums (curricula) and field study for teaching sector in Baghdad and other governorates(provinces) in addition to his great efforts in the field of eradication of illiteracy and Co-ordination with establishments of Local administrations in projects of developing education and teaching in Iraq. ..
He also made good efforts through projects of construction and building schools and educational & teaching establishments (institution) in various districts in Iraq. His efforts succeeded in performing important achievement in the history of Iraqi Ministry of Knowledge viz. establishing Baghdad University. Abdul-HameedKhadhim took great care of the teacher whom he considered the first element of educational and teaching process in addition to his studies in the field of educational and teaching reparation in Iraq and his continuous efforts to send Iraqi cadres and students abroad as he was open to foreign cultures to the degree that suits the situation in Iraq and its cultural heritage. .
Abdul-HameedKhadhim had right national inclinations, he sympathized with political currents that called for Arabic nationality clearly shown in his affiliation to these political formations one of which was Al-Jawal Al-Arabi society then to Al-Muthana Club. He had many eminent stands towards national affairs especially the Palestinian issue in 1948 and the Tri-aggression against Egypt in 1956. .
The nature of this study urged me to divide it to a summary, three parts and a conclusion, The first part deals with his early life and constitution of his social character, The second part deals with his professional job and his cultural activities, The third part shed light on his educational work in Iraq. The fourth part focused on his political activities in Iraq for the period 1934-1958, The conclusion summarized his character, early life, his grading in professional corps, his cultural activities and educational tread and the good efforts that he performed through his work in the Ministry of Knowledge.

The role of credit policies of banks specialized in raising growth rates of GDP

Omar Mahmood Akawee

Journal of Research Diyala humanity, In Press

Suffering of the Iraqi economy economic problem serious a steady decline in the proportion of the contribution of economic sectors real productivity (agriculture and industry) in the output of real gross domestic, and that the cause of the low growth rates sectors of production (agricultural and industrial) not only because of the role of specialized banks in Iraq and is dueto many factors including, but not limited to the lack of direct amount of loans provided by banks specialized towards real investment, who devoted his loan but are directed these loans in the investment service income-generating and quick profit, as well as the lack of protection of the domestic product of the policy of dumping the commodity which causethe reluctance of many investors to borrow and the closure of their productivity. Which caused supplying the local market of this commodity shortages through imports which caused pressure on the balance of payments.

Elements of Lesson in daily Teaching plans of physics Teachers and their common Mistakes in Formulating Behavioral objectives

Esam Abdul Aziz Muhammad Abbas

Journal of Research Diyala humanity, In Press

The research aims at knowing the extent of obligation of male and Female Teachers of physics in Diyala governorate in lesson elements in their Teaching plans and comparing that with accepted Educational level (75%) and knowing the statistical significant differences in obligation degree attributed to sex , educational experience , and joint effect between them in addition to know common mistakes in formulating behavioral objectives .
Research population was all physics Teachers in Diyala governorate and the sample was (38) male and (22) female .Two Evaluation forms were used, the first for knowing lesson Elements and the second for knowing formulating behavioral objectives.
Two statistical tools were used , the first (t-test) and the second (Mann- witney). The degrees of all teachers were less than the accepted Educational Level and there is not any effect for sex factor . But there is statistical difference in joint effect between sex and Educational experience .
The common mistakes in formulating behavioral objectives were as follows :
1- Focusing on cognitive objectives only .
2- Mental abilities were not arranged gradually (knowledge , comprehension , application , ……. etc.).
3- Elements of behavioral formulation were not available .
4- General or special objectives were mentioned only without writing Behavioral objectives .
5- No comprehensiveness in Essential Lesson Elements .
6- Objective formulating describes Educational process instead of its results .
7- Behavioral objective describes Teacher activity not Learner activity .
The researcher offered some recommendations for specialists responsible for teaching science for the sake of developing science teacher and his methods .
He also suggested certain studies in this field of knowledge .

Evolution of The role of chemistry department Laboratories in The educatinohal process in the college of Education for pure science/I bnAlhytem university of Baghdad from the perspective of teachers and teaching assistants

Loyal gassem Hamada

Journal of Research Diyala humanity, In Press

The chemistry of Sciences task taught in all phases of basic education and higher education in colleges (agriculture, science, pharmacy, basic education, dentistry, veterinary medicine) because they intervene in many joints daily life and its impact on the progress of societies in terms of industrial and economic terms intervention chemistry in the food industry, and pharmaceutical industries, and industries fabrics, agriculture and the development of livestock by overlapping with many sciences such as genetics, so there had to be interest Bmokhtbradtha and straightened because chemistry is a science of experimental nature, which relies heavily on the involvement of learners in the educational process through the exercise of various processes of
science, such as observation, inference and prediction and interpretation, and others. To ensure their outputs (learners) are with a good level of skill and scientific to help
them practice their scientific laboratories successfully and because the Department of
Chemistry College of Education / Ibn al-Haytham / University of Baghdad Did not conduct the process of evaluating long ago by science researcher had to be a Tqoimama for proposals to develop and which will positively on scientific basic education in the early stages through instructive Bmkhrgen Mohali good rehabilitation services and achieving educational goals. As the experience researcher in the field of teaching university indicate a weakness in the use of laboratories by graduates of the College of Education/Ibn al-Haytham in primary and secondary schools may be due spread to the stages of university education is therefore objective of this research is to
evaluate the role of laboratories Department of Chemistry College of Education/Ibn al-Haytham/University of Baghdad from the perspective of teachers and teaching assistants in the educational process as for measures research, the researcher followed the following steps.
1- researcher used the descriptive method in the problem description and diagnosis
2- Determine the sample search Tdrisie and reinsurers Department of Chemistry, College Education Ibn al-Haytham / University of Baghdad, which amounted to 256 teaching of the research community and a sample of 256 adult assistants 85 herself research community Ge's
3- INT-resolution adopted as a research tool, which was built during the scoping study conducted by a researcher at society Tdrisie and Reinsurance Department of Chemistry / like any education Ibn al-Haytham / Baghdad University and through access to literature and studies relevant previous
4- extracted researcher honesty virtual questionnaire where the number of vertebrae-resolution finalized (65) is poor while in the initial wording contains (75)
5- researcher used to measure the stability-resolution method re-test using Pearson stability factor, which amounted to (80)
6- researcher used Pearson correlation coefficient and the mean percentage weight means statistical analysis of the results discussed
7- The results revealed a weakness of the role of the laboratory in the educational process in the Department of Chemistry in the Faculty of Education Ibn al-Haytham / University of Baghdad, the result of
8- shortage of organs modern chemical and non-modern laboratories in the section as well as the failure to provide materials and tools chemical that enables the work of each student individually to Akedz skills chemicals needed for the success of his work in the future. Failure to provide the conditions of safety and security cafe each laboratory laboratories. Increasing the number of students admitted to the college affects accommodate them laboratories and Ast researcher:
1- the establishment of modern laboratories and modernizing old ones and processing a pharmacy and protection units and the prevention and work induction courses for learners in the first phase concerning the conditions of safety and security

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